Being a Quaker in Bucks County, 1700-1850


I.                    Overview: Living according to Testimonies of Friends

A.    Friends committed to peculiarity

B.     Necessary to protect from temptations of “The World”

C.     Thus a certain logic

D.    Will look at:

1.      Plainness

2.      Peace

3.      Free Gospel Ministry

4.      Equality

5.      Integrity

6.      Antislavery

E.     Role of the Discipline


II.                 Plainness

A.    Rationale

B.     Dress

C.     Speech

D.    Avoiding vanity

E.     Shunning paganism--calendar


III.              Peace

A.    Justifications for Pacifism

B.     Manifestations

1.      Refusal to bear arms

2.      Militia

3.      War taxes

4.      Problems during Colonial Wars

5.      Problems in American Revolution


IV.              Free Gospel Ministry

A.    Quaker understandings of ministry

B.     Condemnation of hirelings

C.     Equality of women

D.    Experiences in worship


V.                Equality

A.    Bases

B.     Manifestations

1.      Women’s roles

2.      Suspicion of hierarchy

3.      Graveyards and tombstones


VI.              Integrity

A.    Commitments to truth

B.     Manifestations

1.      Oaths

2.      One-price system

C.     Success and temptations


VII.           Antislavery

A.    Quaker slaveholding

B.     Developing Doubts

1.      Benjamin Lay

2.      John Woolman

3.      Anthony Benezet

C.     Decision for emancipation


VIII.        Conclusions

A.    Distinctiveness

B.     Contributions to larger world

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